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八年级下册历史复习提纲 第一单元 中华人民共和国的成立和巩固 第1课 中华人民共和国成立 一


Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove pa rty cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity c ons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking ", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party' s constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

八年级下册历史复习提纲 第一单元 中华人民共和国的成立和巩固 第 1 课 中华人民共 和国成立 一、中国人民政治协商会议召开 目的:筹备建国任务 时间地点:1949 年 9 月 30 日在北平举行 。 ★内容:1949 年 9 月 30 日第一届中国人民政治协商会议在北平隆重 举行。毛泽东主持大会并致开幕词。他向世界庄严宣告: “占人类总数四分之一的中国人从 此站起来了。 ”经民主协商政协会议通过了具有国家临时宪法作用的《中国人民政治协商会 议共同纲领》 。会议决定新中国的国名为中华人民共和国,北平为首都,并改名为北京;采 用公元纪年;以《义勇军进行曲》为代国歌;五星红旗为国旗;在天安门广场建立人民英雄 纪念碑。会议还选举毛泽东为中央人民政府主席;朱德、刘少奇、宋庆龄、李济深、张澜、 高岗为副主席。 《共同纲领》展示了一幅宏伟的建设蓝图,是新中国的建国纲领。在全国 人民代表大会制定宪法前, 它具有国家临时宪法的作用, 是全国各族人民共同遵守的大宪章。 二、开国大典 时间:1949 年 10 月 1 日 1、中央人民政府第一次会议召开 1949 年 10 月 1 日,中华人民共和国中央 人民政府委员会在中南海召开第一次会议,决定接受《共同纲领》为政府施政方针,任命周 恩来为政务院总理兼外交部长, 毛泽东为人民革命军事委员会主席, 朱德为中国人民解放军 总司令。 2、开国大典(先后顺序) 下午三时,首都 30 万军民在天安门广场隆重举行开 国大典。军乐队奏响了代国歌《义勇军进行曲》 。毛泽东在天安门城楼上庄严宣告“中华人 民共和国中央人民政府今天成立了! ” “本政府为代表中华人民共和国全国人民的唯一合法政 府。 ” 在 54 尊礼炮的齐声轰鸣声中, 毛泽东按动电钮, 升起了新中国第一面五星红旗。 随后, 举行了盛大的阅兵式。 3、新中国成立的意义:中华人民共和国的成立是中国有以来最伟 大的事件,是 20 世纪世界历史进程中最重大的事件之一。它结束了一百多年来内外压迫者 对中国的统治和国家战乱频仍, 四分五裂的局面, 实现了人民梦寐以求的民族解放和国家独 立。从此中华民族以崭新的姿态屹立于民族之林。中国历史开始了新的纪元。 三、西藏和 平解放: 时间:1951 年 5 月; 西藏代表:阿沛·阿旺晋美;5 月 23 日,签署《中央人 民政府和西藏地方下放关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》 ,西藏实现和平解放。 经过:1950 年 10 月,人民解放军进军西藏。同时,中央人民政府通知西藏地方政府派代表到北京谈判。 1951 年 5 月,经过谈判,西藏和平解放。昌都战役的胜利这西藏和平解放奠定基础. 意义: 至此,除台湾和少数海上岛屿外,中国领土全部获得解放,标志中国大陆领土的全部解 第 2 课 人民政权的巩固 一、整顿经济秩序 1、背景 中华人民共和国成立后,新生的 人民政权经受了军事、政治、外交、经济等多方面的严峻考验。特别是工作重心由农村转身 城市, 对处理全国性、 特别是大城市中的经济问题还缺乏经验, 如何迅速制止市场物价混乱, 整顿经济秩序,进而为恢复国民经济创造条件,是一项复杂艰难又十分紧迫的任务。 2、 采取措施: ⑴严厉打击银元投机;⑵平抑物价,⑶统一财经。毛泽东称这一经济上的胜利 意义“不下于淮海战役” 。 3、作用 稳定经济秩序之后,人民政府用三年的时间,又顺利 地完成了恢复和初步发展国民经济的艰巨任务, 为全国开展大规模的经济建设, 向工业化目 标奋进,奠定了基础。 二、抗美援朝(1950—1953 年) 1、参战目的:保家卫国,支援 朝鲜人民。 1950 年 6 月,朝鲜内战爆发。美国打着联合国的旗帜武装干涉朝鲜,并公然 入侵台湾,把战火延烧到中国的东北边境。 2、性质:反侵略的正义战争。 1950 年 10 月,中国人民志愿军在司令员彭德怀的领导下开赴朝鲜战场,与朝鲜军队并肩作战,承担起 保卫和平的历史重任。 与此同时, 国内展开了轰轰烈烈的抗美援朝运动。 3、 英雄人物: 志 愿军指战员为维护祖国和民族的尊严,舍生忘死,慷慨奉献,发扬了爱国主义、革命英雄主 义的精神,被人们誉为“最可爱的人” 。战斗英雄黄继光、邱少云。 4、结果: 1953 年 7

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ning t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focu s on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

月,美军在战场上严重受挫,被迫在停战协定上签字。朝鲜战争结束。 5、意义: 抗美援 朝是巩固年轻的人民共和国的又一胜利。 它极大地增强了中华民族的自信心和凝聚力, 也使 新中国的国际声望得到空前提高, 为经济建设赢得了一个相对稳定的和平环境。 考验了人民 军队的现代化战斗能力。 三、 土地改革 1、 《中华人民共和国土地改革法》 : 颁布时间: 1950 年 6 月 1950 年 6 月,中央人民政府委员会颁布了《中华人民共和国土地改革法》 ,宣 布废除地方阶级封建剥削的土地制度,实行农民的土地所有制。在两年多的时间内,全国绝 大多数地区完成了土地改革。 2、土地改革的伟大意义: 土地改革,废除了封建土地剥 削制度,极大地解放了农村生产力,推动了农业生产的恢复和发展,为新中国的工业化创造 了条件。依靠在土地改革中形成的有组织的阶级队伍,中国共产党完成了对旧乡村的改选, 为以后在农村社会中推行党的各项政策奠定了基础。 第二单元 社会主义道路的探索 新 中国成立至今已有 60 周年,按历史发展人民情况,可分为以下四个阶段: ① 1949 年——1956 年由新民主主义向社会主义过渡阶段。 ② 1956 年——1966 年 5 月为开始全面建设社会主 义的十年。 ③ 1966 年 5 月——1976 年 10 月文化大革命的十年。 ④ 1978 年十一届三中全会为社会主义建设的新时代。 第二单元 社会主义道路的探索 第 3 课 向社会主义过渡 1、时间:1953 年,党中央制定了过渡时期总路线(1949—1956 年) 。 2、主要内容: 规定了要在一个相当长的时期内逐步实现国家的社会主义工业化, 实现对农业、手工业和对资本主义商业进行社会主义改选的目标和任务。 一、第一个五年 计划: 1、第一个五年计划(1953 年~1957 年)的基本任务:主要是集中力量发展重 工业,相应地发展交通运输业、轻工业和其他各项事业;为建立社会主义国家奠定厚实的物 质基础。 实现工业化是国家独立富强的必然要求。 但中国原有的工业基础十分薄弱。 2、 建设成就:到 1957 年底,各项主要指标大幅度超额完成任务,取得了令人振奋的巨大成就。 钢铁、煤、电力、机器制造、交通运输以及水利建设等各个方面捷报频传,不仅工业基础得 到极大改善, 也初步改变了工业分布沿海的不合理布局, 中国的社会主义工业化步伐在扎扎 实实地向前迈进。 ★★★①1953 年 12 月,鞍山钢铁公司兴建的大型轧钢厂、无缝钢管厂 和七号炼钢炉三大重点工程隆重举行了开工生产典礼, 被称为 “我国重工业发展中的巨大事 件” ; ②1953 年 7 月,中国第一汽车制造厂在吉林长春兴建,成为新中国汽车工业的摇篮。 1956 年 7 月,第一辆国产“解放牌”汽车出厂,结束了中国不能制造汽车的有中国历史。 ③1954 年 2 月,东起青海西宁市,西到西藏拉萨市,全长 1943 千米的青藏公路建成通车, 结束了西藏没有公路的历史。④1954 年,南昌飞机厂制造的第一架飞机试飞成功。1956 年, 新型喷气式飞机在沈阳试制成功。⑤1957 年 10 月,武汉长江大桥建成通车,全长 1670。4 米,是长江上第一座公路、铁路两用桥,从此, “南北天堑变通途” 。 三、三大改造 1、 过渡时期总路线的基本内容,通常被概括为“一化三改” ,即社会主义工业化(简称“一化” ) 以及对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业社会主义改造(简称“三改” ) 。 以及对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业社会主义改造(简称“三改” ) 。 2、 “三大改造”实质是对生产资料私有制实行变革,使社会主义公有制在国民经济中占绝 对的优势地位,为在我国建立社会主义基本制度奠定经济基础。 ①对农业的社会主义改造, 创造了多种过渡形式, 逐步将分散的个体农业经济改造成为社会 主义的集体经济,以适应工业化对农业生产的需要。 ②手工业的社会主义改造,有生产合作小组、供销合作社和生产合作社等多种形式。 ③对私营工商业的改造, 国家采取利用、 限制、 改造的政策, 通过有步骤地和平赎买的办法, 将它们纳入国家计划的轨道, 使资本家私有制逐步过渡到社会主义公有制, 由此创造出一条 适应中国特点的社会主义改造道路。 ☆3、三大改造的意义:到 1956 年底, “三大改造”的完成,标志着在一个几亿人口的大国

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

比较顺利地实现了由生产资料私有制到社会主义公有制的社会变革。 初步建立起社会主义基 本制度,从此,中国进入社会主义初级阶段。 个体商业的改造要求过急、工作过粗、改变 过快,形式过于简单划一,以致在长时间内遗留了一些问题。但走社会主义道路是不可避免 的,也是完全正确的。 三、中华人民共和国宪法 1、制定的目的 为了适应向社会主义过渡新时期的需要,巩固人民民主专政制度,建立社会主义民主和法 制。 2、制定过程 1954 年 9 月,在北京召开的第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过了 《中华人民共和国宪法》 ,取代了已经完成历史使命的《共同纲领》 。 ☆3、时代意义 《1954 年中华人民共和国宪法》是我国第一部社会主义类型的宪法,总结了百余年来中国 人民革命斗争的历史经验,确认了新中国建立以来在政治、经济上的新成就;规定了国家的 性质、基本政治制度和各项政策,规定了公民的基本权利和义务,并以根本大法的形式,把 过渡时期总路线规定的建设社会主义国家的总目标确定了下来。 宪法的颁布, 使我国的社会 主义民主和法制建设有了根本大法的保障。 第 4 课 “大跃进”与人民公社化运动 一、大跃进 1、 背景 1958 年开始的“大跃进”和人民公社化运动,说明对当时社会主义初级阶段经济建设和社 会发展的认识存在很大的盲目性。 2、总路线(指导思想) 鼓足干劲,力争上游,多快好省地建设社会主义。 3、积极意义 这条总路线反映了广大人民群众要求尽快改变我国经济文化落后状况,求富求强的强烈渴 望。 4、消极意义 由于过分强调“速度是总路线的灵魂” ,但忽视了经济建设的客观规律,助长了浮夸蛮干的 风气,片面追求工农业生产高指标、高速度的“大跃进”运动在全国范围内展开。 “大跃进” 首先在农业上发动起来,而后扩展到工业领域,掀起全民“大炼钢铁”的群众运动。 二、人民公社 1、运动掀起的原因: 伴随着经济战线上“大跃进”而来的,是在农村掀起人民公社化运动。1958 年,根据“工 农商学兵相互结合,农林牧副渔全面发展”的原则,全国农村一哄而起,将农业生产合作社 迅速转变为人民公社。 2、运动的实质 大跃进在农村的翻版和扩大, 急于求成, 不切实际地提出向共产主义过渡, 大刮 “共产风” 。3、 运动的后果 大办人民公社超出了当时的生产力和群众的觉悟水平, 搞平均主义, 实际上损坏了群众的利 益,最终造成了生产混乱和生产力下降。 二、 国民经济的调整 从 1959 年起,特别严重是 1960 年夏以后, “大跃进”和人民公社化运动造成的严重后果逐 渐显露出来,使国民经济陷入困境。1961 年正式提出国民经济实行“调整、巩固、充实、 提高”的八字方针。在 1964 年底至 1965 年初召开的第三届全国人民代表大会上,周恩来宣 布:经济调整的任务已基本完成,我国将进入一个以实现“四个现代化”为目标的国民经济 发展的新时期。不久,由于发生了“文化大革命” ,这一历史进程被中断。 第 5 课 奋发图强 艰苦创业 一、 “铁人”王进喜

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

1960 年春,石油会战的成功,打破了“中国贫油”的悲观论调。 二、 “两弹元勋”邓稼先 1959 年 6 月,为了增强国防势力,打破国际上的核垄断和核讹诈,在苏联政府终止合作协 议的情况下, 中央下决心自己制造原子弹。 在以邓稼先为代表的一代核科学家的集体努力下, 1964 年 10 月,我国成功爆炸了第一颗原子弹。1967 年 6 月,中国第一颗氢弹爆炸成功。 意义:两弹的成功爆炸,表明了我国已具备核防御力量,这不仅对于维护国家安全和世界和 平具有重要意义,而且也极大的鼓舞了民族自信心。 邓稼先的评价:邓稼先长期工作在第一线,兢兢业业,为我国第一颗原子弹和第一颗氢弹的 成功试制和爆炸做出了卓越的贡献,被誉为中国的“两弹元勋” 。 三、 “县委书记的榜样”焦裕禄 焦裕禄一身正气,廉洁奉公,处处为他人着想,为群众谋利益。他严于律己,鞠躬尽瘁,真 正实践了共产党人全心全意为人民服务的宗旨,被誉为“县委书记的榜样” 。 第 6 课“文化大革命”(1966.5~1976.10) 一、发动 1、原因: ①制度建设方面:这是党和国家民主与法制不健全的表现。 ②个人发面:毛泽东错误估计了阶级斗争的形式,指导思想出现了偏差。 2、性质: 是一场由毛泽东错误发动和领导, 被林彪和江青两个反革命集团利用, 给党和国家和广大人 民带来灾难和损失的动乱,它不是任何意义上的革命。 3、经过: 1966 年 5 月,中共中央发出《五一六通知》标志着“文化大革命”全面爆发。这场由“中 央文革小组”操纵的运动,很快又从党内推向社会,破坏民主法制的社会动乱开始出现。 二、升级 所谓的“一月革命”风暴。标志着文化大革命的升级,进入全面夺权阶段。 三、 结束 1、文革造成的深重灾难: ①国民经济发展缓慢,拉大了中国通发达国家之间的差距。②人民生活水平基本没有提高, 社会动荡不安。③民主与法制遭到严重破坏,政治运动接二连三,干部群众心情压抑。 2、林彪叛逃事件 林彪因迫不及待地图谋提前“接班” ,甚至还秘密策划反革命武装政变。 阴谋败露后,林彪乘飞机仓皇外逃,于 1971 年 9 月工资 3 日,在蒙古温都尔汗坠机身亡。 林彪叛逃事件的发生,客观上宣告了“文化大革命”理论和实践的失败。 3、周恩来、邓小平全面调整 ①目的:恢复社会安定和经济发展的正常局面。 ②成果: 经过整顿, 国民经济状况明显好转, 全国大部分地区的社会趋于稳定。 4、 粉碎 “四 人帮” ①1976 年 1 月 8 日,周恩来总理逝世,人民群众万分悲痛。但“四人帮”却发出种种禁令, 压制人们的悼念活动,并加紧对邓小平进行“大批判” 。 ②四五运动:1976 年清明节前夕,首都百万群众聚集天安门广场,沉痛悼念周恩来总理, 愤怒声讨江青等人的滔天罪行,4 月 5 日,遭到“四人帮”的镇压。尽管如此,四五运动为 后来粉碎江青反革命集团奠定了群众基础。 ③严峻时期:1976 年 9 月,毛泽东逝世前后, “四人帮”反革命集团加紧了夺取党和国家最 高领导权的阴谋活动。 ④果断出击:1976 年 10 月 6 日,中央政治局当机立断,对江青、张春桥、王洪文、姚文元 等实行隔离审查,一举粉碎了“四人帮” 。长达十年之久的“文化大革命”终于结束。

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

☆5、教训: ⑴加强健全社会主义民主与法治建设。 ⑵加强民主集中制的原则,反对个人崇拜。 ⑶大力发展社会主义生产力,以经济建设为中心,努力提高人民群众的物质和文化生活水 平。 ⑷大力发展教育事业,重视知识,重视人才 6 ⑸维护国家安定团结。 第三单元 建设中国特色的社会主义 第 7 课 历史转折与邓小平理论 十二大 十三大 十四大——建立社会主义市场经济体制 ☆邓小平理论 南方谈话 维护祖国统一方面: “一国两制”的伟大构想 十五大——正式命名 一、十一届三中全会: 1、背景: 当时主持党中央工作的领导人提出了“两个凡是”的错误方针,导致在进行道路上出现徘徊 局面。 “两个凡是”指“凡是毛主席做出的决策,我们都坚决拥护;凡是毛主席的指示,我们都始 终不懈地遵循” 。 2、思想基础:关于真理标准的大讨论。 1978 年 12 月,邓小平发表《解放思想,实事求是,团结一致向前看》的讲话,冲破了“两个 凡是”的禁锢,为实现历史性转折、开辟新时期的新道路奠定了思想基础。 邓小平在一次谈话中指出:必须要用准确的、完整的毛泽东思想来指导我们全党、全军和全 国人民。 1978 年 5 月,在胡耀邦的组织领导下, 《光明日报》发表特约评论员文章《实践是检验真理 的唯一标准》 ,引发了一场关于真理标准的大讨论,揭开了思想解放运动的序幕。 3、十一届三中全会 ⑴时间:1978 年 12 月 △⑵①内容:会议否定“两个凡是”的方针,重新确立了解放思想、实事求是的指导思想; ②果断地停止使用“以阶级斗争为纲”的口号,做出把工作重点转移到社会主义现代化建设 上来的战略决策;③形成以邓小平为核心的党中央领导集体,恢复了党的民主集中制原则。 ④会议还审查和解决了历史上遗留的一批重大问题以及一些重要领导人的功过是非问题, 开 始了系统清理重大历史是非的拨乱反正。 ☆⑶意义: 十一届三中全会是建国以来中国共产党历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折。 会议做 出实行改革开放的新决策,开始了中国从“以阶级斗争为纲”到以经济建设为中心的历史性 转变。伟大的社会主义改革开放从这次全会揭开序幕。 △20 世纪历史上中国的三次历史性的巨大变革: ⑴、辛亥革命废除了两千年的封建专制。 ⑵、中华人民共和国成立改变了中国半殖民地、半封建的社会。 ⑶、 十一届三中全会开始了中国 “以阶级斗争为纲” 到以经济建设为中心的历史性转变。二、 社会主义初级阶段理论的形成 1、党的十二大:1982 年 9 月,中国共产党召开第十二次全国人大代表,确定了全面开创社 会主义现代化建设新局面的奋斗纲领,邓小平在会上明确提出“走自己的路,建设有中国特 色的社会主义” 。从此, “建设有中国特色的社会主义”成为把全国各族人民凝聚在一起,进 行改革开放和现代化建设的旗帜。十二大以后,改革开放在全国范围内全面展开。 2、党的十三大:

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

我国处于社会主义初级阶段包括两层含义:第一,我国已经是社会主义社会,我们必须坚持 而不能离开社会主义;第二,我国的社会主义社会还处在初级阶段,我们必须从这个实际出 发,而不能超越这个阶段。 ①初级阶段的理论: 1987 年 10 月召开的第十三次全国代表大会,系统地阐明了关于社会主义初级阶段的理论, 明确指出我国正处于社会主义初级阶段, 并对党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线做了概括。 ②党的基本路线: “一个中心,两个基本点” 党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线是:领导和 团结团结全国各族人民, 以经济建设为中心, 坚持四项基本原则, 坚持改革开放, 自力更生, 艰苦创业,为把我国建设成为富强、民主、文明的社会主义现代化国家而奋斗。这条基本路 线的主要内容,后来被简括为“一个中心,两个基本点” 。 ③三步走的战略部署: 十三大确立了中国的现代化分三步走的战略部署:第一步,实现国民生产总值比 1980 年翻 一番,解决人民的温饱问题;第二步,到 20 世纪末,使国民生产总值再增长一倍,人民生 活达到小康水平;第三步,到 20 世纪中叶,使人均国民生产总值达到中等发达国家水平, 人民生活比较富裕,基本实现现代化。 2000 年——低水平的小康,不全面的小康。 三、南方谈话 1、背景:20 世纪 80 年代末、90 年代初,国际国内形势发生了重大变化。 2、概念:1992 年初,邓小平视察武昌、深圳、珠海和上海等南方城市,发表重要谈话,统称 “南方谈话” 。 3、意义:在谈话中,邓小平科学总结了党的十一届三中全会以来的基本实践和基本经验, 从理论上回答了长期以来困扰和束缚人们思想的许多重大认识问题, 不仅对当时的改革和发 展起到了重要的指导作用,而且对整个社会主义现代化建设事业具有重大而深远的意义。 谈话内容: “基本路线在管一百年,动摇不得” 。 “计划多一点还是市场多一点,不是社会主义与资本主 义的本质区别。计划经济不等于社会主义,资本主义也有计划;市场经济不等于资本主义, 社会主义也有市场。计划和市场都是经济手段” 。 “我们搞社会主义才几十年,还处在初级阶 段。巩固和发展社会主义制度,还需要一个很长的历史阶段,需要我们几代人、十几代人, 甚至几十代人坚持不渝地努力奋斗,决不能掉以轻心。 ” 四、党的十五大——正式命名 1997 年 2 月,中国改革开放和现代化建设的总设计师邓小平逝世。同年 9 月,中国共产党 召开的党的第十五次全国代表大会决定, 把建设中国特色的社会主义理论命名为 “邓小平理 论” ,在党章中把邓小平理论确定为党的指导思想,作为指引全党前进的旗帜。 第 8 课 城乡改革不断深入 农村 经济体制改革 对内改革 城市——国有企业 改革开放 政治体制改革 对外开放 一、联产承包责任制 1、时间和背景:作为新时期主要标志的改革开放在十一届三中全会后开始起步。经济体制 改革的浪潮首先从农村掀起,其主要内容是实行家庭联产承包责任制。由安徽、四川农民于 1978 年底、 8 1979 年初率先实行的这项改革,在邓小平等领导人的支持下,迅速扩展到全国农村,使农 民告别了人民公社制度, 也推动了中国农村各项事业的蓬勃发展。 安徽省凤阳县小岗生产

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

队在全村决定实行“大包干” 。农民在生产上有更大的自主性,生产的产品“保证国家的, 留足集体的、剩下的都是自己的” ,积极性空前提高,农业产量和农民收入都有大幅度增加。 农村联产承包责任制的实行,促进人民公社体制迅速解体。1980 年 9 月,四川省广汉县向 阳乡成为全国第一个取消人民公社的地方。1983 年,中央正式决定建立乡(镇)政府,而 后又成立村民委员会作为群众性基层自治组织。 2、意义:家庭联产承包责任制,是一项 适合我国农业生产力发展水平和广大农民愿望的重大改革。改革是在坚持集体经济的前提 下,在经营方式上改为分户承包、自负盈亏,使农民在生产上获得更多的自主性。农村面貌 由此发生显著变化。 二、乡镇企业异军突起 1、背景:随着农村经济开始朝专业化、商 品化、社会化方向发展,大批剩余劳动力逐渐从土地上转移出来从事工业和加工业,促进乡 镇企业异军突起,很快发展成为国民经济的一支重要力量。 2、作用:乡镇企业异军突起, 是中国农民又一个伟大创新, 为了实现农村剩余劳动力的转移, 为农民致富和逐步实现农村 现代化开辟了一条新路,也有力地促进了工业和整个国民经济的发展。 三、国有企业改革 在农村改革的推动下,城市经济体制改革也开始起步。城市改革的重点是国有企业。由于城 市的情况远比农村复杂,长期实行的高度集中的计划经济体制对城市和国有企业的影响很 大, 因而党中央和国务院对国有企业的改革采取了十分慎重的态度, 先进行以扩大企业自主 权为主要内容的试点和探索,逐步积累经验,在条件成熟时再全面推开。1978 年 10 月,四 川省率先进行扩大企业自主权的改革试点。 1984 年 10 月, 中共十二届三中全会明确提出, 以城市经济体制改革为重点,把增强企业活力作为发展的中心环节。随后,城市经济体制改 革全面展开。国家逐步下放经济的计划管理权限,国有企业则按照政企分开、所有权和经营 权适当分离的原则,打破“大锅饭” ,开始实行各种形式的经营责任制。1993 年,党中央提出, 国有企业必须进一步转换经营机制,建立适应市场经济要求、产权清晰、责权明确、政企分 开、管理科学的现代企业制度。到 2000 年底,基本实现了大多数国有大中型亏损企业摆脱 困境、 大多数国有大中型企业初步建立现代化企业制度的目标。 第 9 课 对外开放逐步扩 大 1、1980 年设置 4 个经济特区 2、1984 年开放区 4 个沿海港口城市 对外开放逐步扩 大 3、1988 年海南建省,最大的经济特区。 4、对外开放的格局 5、20 世纪 90 年代,上海浦东开发开放。 6、2001 年中国加入世界贸易组织 一、经济特区的建立 (一) 经济特区的建立 1、设立 4 个经济特区。1980 年,中共中央、国务院决定在深圳、珠海、 汕头和厦门设置经济特区。特区建设在交通方便,位于东南沿海临近港澳。 ⑴必要性:实 行对外开放,是邓小平在正确总结历史经验教训和把握世界发展大势的基础上形成有大思 路。他认为,现在有世界是开放的世界,关起门来搞建设是不行的。只有对外开放大量吸收 外国资金,学习国际上先进的科学技术和管理经验,才能加快我国的现代化建设。 ⑵经济 成果:深圳自创办特区后,深圳的主要经济指标每两年至两年半即翻一番。经济发展速度超 过了新加坡、韩国等亚洲“四小龙”经济起飞时的发展速度。短短的几年时间,深圳就变成 了 9 一个高楼林立、初具规模的现代化城市,成为引进外资和先进技术的前沿地区。 2、 1984 年 5 月,中共中央、国务院决定进一步开放大连、秦皇岛、天津、烟台、青岛、连云 港、南通、上海、宁波、温州、福州、广州、湛江和北海 14 个沿海港口城市,逐步兴办经 济技术开发区。 3、1988 年 4 月,七届人大一次会议批准海南建省,划定海南岛为海南经 济特区。 4、至此,全国形成了“经济特区——沿海开放城市——沿海经济开放区——内 地” 这样一个多层次、 有重点、 点面结合的对外开放格局。 (二) 经济特区建立的意义 经 济特区的创设, 是我国对外开放的重大举措, 对吸引外资、引进技术、发展生产、扩大出口、 推进经济体制改革起到了重大的作用,有力地推动了社会主义现代化建设。 二、上海浦东 的开发开放 为把上海建成国际经济、金融、贸易中心,带动长江三角洲乃至长江流域经济 腾飞,促进全国经济的发展,1990 年 4 月,党中央、国务院决定开发开放上海浦东,在浦

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

东实行经济技术开发区和某些经济特区的政策。 浦东成为 20 世纪 90 年代中国改革开放进一 步深化和取得显著成就的重要标志。 三、加入世界贸易组织 2001 年 12 月,中国正式成 为世界贸易组织的成员。这标志着中国对外开放进入了一个新的阶段。 第 10 课 民主法 制建设 一、依法治国 1 、必要性:十一届三中全会后,为了促进社会稳定,适应经济体制改革和经济发展的需要, 依 据党中央关于积极推进政治体制改革的目标需求, 我国的民主法制建设不断深化, 制定出一 系列相 关的法律、法令和条例,使民主建设趋于制度化、法律化,初步建立和健全了有中国特色的 社会主 义民主法制。 2、迫切性:1979 年,邓小平强调指出“民主和法制,这两个方面都应该加强,过去我们都不足。要加强民主 就要加强法制。没有广泛的民主是不行的,没有健全的法制也是不行的。 ” 3、完备性:十一届三中全会以来,国家在立法方面取得了巨大的成就。截至 2000 年,全国已制定了 380 多件法律和有关法律问题的决定,800 多件行政法规,8000 多件地方性法规。从总体上 看,我国在政治、经济生活和社会生活的主要方面,已基本形成了有法可依的局面,以宪法 为核心 和基础的、有中国特色的法律体系的框架初步形成。①数量多②项目全③有特色 4、艰巨性:1999 年,九届全国人大第二次会议通过社会宪法修正案,把“依法治国,建设 社 会主义法治国家”作为基本方略写进宪法。这是总结共和国 50 年民主与法制建设的经验教训做出的历史结论,说明中国共产党和中国人民经过不懈的努 力,终于找到并已经开始步入实现国家长治久安的康庄大道。 二、 《刑法》和《民法通则》 1、颁布时间:1979 年 7 月,全国人在通过并颁布《中华人民共和国刑法》 ,与此同时还通 过、颁布了《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》 ,标志着我国法制建设进行了历史新时期。1997 年 3 月,全国人大对《中华人民共和国刑法》做了重大修订,新刑法于 1997 年 10 月 1 日起 施行至今。 2、意义:刑法的完善和实施,在保卫国家安全,保护公私财产,保护社会秩 序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行等方面,起到了重要作用。随着经济体制 改革的深入, 特别是为了适应建立社会主义市场经济体制的要求, 需要将先后颁布的各种民 法法规纳入一个总体框架,并针对新的情况做出相应的法律规定。为此,全国人大于 1986 年 4 月通过《中华人民共和国民法通则》 ,并于 1987 年 1 月 1 日起施行。终于有了体系性的 总体构架,为制订完整的、系统的、具有中国特色的社会主义民法典,奠定了坚实的基础。 《民法通则》在中国历史上第一次确立了法人制度,并规定 10 “全民所有制企业法人以国家授予它经营管理的财产承担民事责任” , 这就为经济开放 扫除了一个很大的障碍。 三、村民自治 1983 年后,全国各地普遍废除了“政企合一” 的人民公社体制, 在乡镇以下建立了村委会。 为适应新的变化, 将社会主义民主落实到基层, 推进农村的民主制度建立,1987 年全国人大通过并颁布了《中华人民共和国村民委员会组 织法(试行) 》 , 、 。随后,全国各地农村逐渐开展了以民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主 监督为核心内容的村民民主自治实践。所谓“海选” ,就是指村民可以不受限制地提名任何 具有被选举资格的人为候选人,并可以按照自己的意思进行选举。意义:农村基层民主制度 建设,是社会主义民主在农村最广泛的实践,也是巩固农村基层政权、密切干群关系、促进 农村社会进步的重要举措。我们现在实行的村民自治,实践证明它完全符合我国国情。

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

第四单元 民族团结与祖国统一 第 12 课 民族团结与民族区域自治 一、民族平等 与民族团结 1、民族居住格局:中国是一个统一的多民族国家。在长期的历史发展过程中, 各民族形成了(西部多,东部少)大杂居、小聚居的分布格局,彼此之间结成了相互依存、 相互促进的关系。新中国成立后,党和政府实行民族平等、民族团结的民族政策。 ⑴政治上:保障平等参与,享有充分权利。 ⑵文教上: 保护民族文化,培养民族人才。 2、民族政策 ⑶习俗上:尊重民族习惯,保护宗教信 仰。 ⑷经济上:安排建设项目,扶持民族经济。 保障少数民族平等参与国家政治生 活,尊重和保护少数民族的风俗习惯、宗教信仰,保护少数民族各具特色的民族文化,既反 对大民族主义,也反对地方民族分裂主义,极大地维护和促进了各民族和睦相处,共同繁荣 进步的良好民族关系。 二、民族区域自治制度 1、民族区域自治制度,是中国政府为解 决民族问题采取的一项基本政策, 也是一项基本政治制度, 民族区域自治是指在国家的统一 领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权,由少数民族人 民当家做主,自己管理本民族的内部事务。 2、中国的民族自治地方分为自治区、自治州、 自治县(旗)三级。 省级民族自治区设立情况简表 自治区名称 设立时间 领导人 内蒙 古自治区 1947 年 5 月 乌兰夫 新疆维吾尔自治区 1955 年 10 月 赛福鼎· 艾则孜 广西壮 族自治区 1958 年 3 月 韦国清 宁夏回族自治区 1958 年 10 月 刘格平 西藏自治区 1965 年 9 月 阿沛· 阿旺晋美 截止 1998 年底,全国共建立了 155 个民族自治地方。 其中包 括 5 个自治区、 30 个自治州、 120 个自治县 (旗) 。 此外, 还有 1256 个民族乡。 3、 作用 民 族区域自治制度的实行,既保障了少数民族当家作主的自治权利,又维护了国家的统一,有 利于把国家的方针、政策同少数民族地区的具体实际结合起来、 有利于把国家的发展同少 数民族的发展结合起来,发挥各方面的优势。 三、各民族共同繁荣(经济上) 新中国成 立后,国家根据民族地区的实际实际情况,制定和采取了一系列特殊的政策和措施 11 有计划地在中国西部地区安排一些重点工程, 调整少数民族地区单一的经济结构, 发展 多种产业,积极帮助民族地区发展经济,促进各民族的共同发展与进步。 特别是中共十一 届三中全会以后, 国家加大了对少数民族地区的经济投入, 加快少数民族地区对外开放的步 伐,使少数民族地区的经济发展呈现出前所未有的勃勃生机。到 20 世纪 90 年代,全国 80% 以上的少数民族地区解决了温饱问题。民族地区的工商业、交通、通讯以及文化教育、卫生 事业都有了很大的发展。 四、结论: 实践证明,中国实行的民族平等、民族团结政策和 民族区域自治区制度是成功的, 走出了一条符合本国国情的解决民族问题和实现各民族共同 发展的正确道路。随着改革开放和现代化建设事业的发展,中国各民族平等、团结、互助的 关系在 21 世纪必将得到进一步巩固和发展。我国民族区域自治制度,合乎国情,胜乎民心, 具有强大的胜利意义。 第 13 课 祖国统一大业 一、 “一国两制”构想 1、 “一国两制” 构想 ①出发点:实现祖国的完全统一,是海内外全体中国人的共同心愿。20 世纪 80 年代 初,邓小平从维护祖国和中华民族的根本利益出发,尊重历史和现实,以伟大政治家和战略 家的远见卓识,提出了“一国两制”构想。最初是为了解决台湾问题提出来的。1982 年 1 月,邓小平首次把有关解决台湾问题的方针概括为“一个国家,两种制度” 。 ②“一国两制”内涵:就是“一个国家,两种制度” ,指在统一的一个中国的前提下,大陆实行社会主义制度,香港、澳门、台湾保持原有的资 本主义制度长期不变。 2 、意义: “一国两制”是一个具有创造性和伟大构想,是中国政府的一项基本国策,既有利于保持香 港、 澳门和台湾的稳定, 为中国的统一大业开辟了一条现实的道路, 也为国际社会经和平解决某 些历史遗留问题找到了新思路,为维护世界和地区和平做出了贡献。 二、香港、澳门回归

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

祖国 1、香港和澳门回归:回归按照“一国两制”构想,中英两国政府经过 22 轮谈判,于 1984 年 12 月正式签署关于香港问题的《联合声明》 ,宣布中国政府将于 1997 年 7 月 1 日恢 复对香港行使主权。1987 年 4 月,中葡两国政府签署关于澳门问题的《联合声明》 ,宣布中 国政府将于 1999 年 12 月 20 日对澳门恢复行使主权。这两个《联合声明》的发表与生效, 标志着中国将对香港、澳门恢复名誉行使主权的问题基本解决。 2、能回归的原因: 内 因:①综合国力的提高。②“一国两制”构想的提出。③中国人民的支持和拥护。 外因: 外国帝国主义殖民体制土崩瓦解。 4、香港、 澳门回归祖国的历史意义:香港、澳门回归祖国, 是中国人民长期奋斗的结果,是 “一国两制”构想的成功实践,彻底结束了外国列强对中国领土的占领,洗雪了中华民族的 耻辱,标志着祖国统一大业迈出了历史性步伐。 三、统一大业必将实现 1、 “一国两制” 构想提出后, 中国共产党和中央政府采取了一系列缓和海峡两岸关系的具体政策和措施, 打 破了长期以来两岸人为隔绝的局面。 随着形势的发展, 台湾方面也开始调整对大陆的某些政 策,逐步放宽对两岸交流的限制。 2、解决台湾问题的基本方针:和平解决,一国两制, 但决不承诺放弃使用武力。 两岸关系的缓和, 为两岸之间的人员往来和交流创造了良好的 条件下。 自 20 世纪 80 年代中后期以来, 两岸之间的交流日益频繁, 领域不断扩大, 从文化、 教育逐步拓展到经济、贸易、卫生、科技以及新闻、出版、宗教等各个方面。通过交流,增 进了两岸人民之间的相互了解和沟通,减少了敌意和误解,增强了民族感情和民族凝聚力。 3、解决台湾问题有利因素: ①两岸关系缓和,为相互间人员往来和交流创造了良好的条 件。 12 ②两岸经济合作交流是促进两岸关系结束敌对状态, 逐步实现和平统一的重要基础。 ③大陆方面希望在一个中国的原则下, 积极促进和平, 为两岸关系和亚太地区的和平稳定提 供有利保障。 ⑤ 改革开放以来,中国综合国力增强,国际影响力增大,大陆拥有极大的 感召力,两岸人民 希望实现和平统一。 4、解决台湾问题不利因素: ①“台独”势力猖 獗。②美国等外国的干涉。 5、 前景:尽管目前海峡两岸仍处于分裂状态,但两岸交流日益密切的事实表明, 发展两岸关系,是两岸人民的共同愿望,符合两岸人民的根本利益。实现祖国的完全统一是 大势所趋,民心所向,是任何力量也无法阻挡的。 5、台湾问题的本质: 台湾问题是分裂与反分裂, “台独”与“反台独”的斗争,焦点是一个中国与“两个中国” 的斗争。 第五单元 国防建设与外交成就 第 14 课 人民军队的现代化建设 一、海、空 军的建立 1、背景: 建国伊始,新生的人民政权在军事上面临着严峻的考验。当时,国内 的国民党残余军队还在负隅顽抗;国际上,美国拒绝承认并竭力阻止其他国家承认新中国, 同时对华实行军事包围政策。 2、 海军的建立 1949 年 4 月,中国人民解放军第一支海军是 ——华东军区海军在江苏泰州宣告成立。1950 年,海军领导机关在北京成立,标志着海军 正式成为人民解放军的一个军种。数年后,海军东海舰队、南海舰队与北海舰队相继成立。 1974 年,中国第一艘核潜艇被命名为“长征一号” ,正式编入海军 战斗序列。从此,中国海军进入了一个新的发展阶段。 3、空军的建立:人民空军是同新 中国一起诞生的。1949 年 8 月,组建了我军第一个飞行大队。11 月,空军司令部成立,标 志着中国人民空军正式诞生。 4、海、空军建立的意义 海、空军的相继建立,初步实现了人民军队由单一的陆军向诸军兵种合成的转变,大大提 高了我国的国防实力,为维护国家主权和领土完整提供了安全保障。 二、导弹部队的建立 和发展 1、背景 20 世纪 50 年代,为了打破西方大国的核威胁和核讹诈,适应现代条件下 的战争需要,中共中央决定发展中国的导弹事业,组建独立的战略核反击力量。1966 年

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

7月 1 日,中国战略导弹部队正式成立,被命名为“第二炮兵” 。 1984 年 10 月 1 日,中国战略 导弹部队在国庆 35 周年的阅兵式上首次亮相,揭开了神秘的面纱。1999 年 10 月 1 日,在 国庆 50 周年阅兵式上, 中国战略导弹家庭的部分常规导弹和核导弹再度驶过 “神州第一街” , 人们惊奇地发现: 中国的战略导弹变小了, 标志着中国战略导弹部队现代化建设实现了历史 性跨越。 2、发展水平 中国战略导弹部队是人民解放军中担负战略核反击任务的军种。30 多年来, 经过一代又一代人的艰苦创业, 中国战略导弹部队已基本建成了固守阵地与机动发 射相结合, 包括近、 中、 远程和洲际弹道导弹在内的战略防御体系, 形成了核战争条件下 “全 天候” 的常年作战能力、 快速反映能力和准确打击能力。 ①发射方式先进。 ②导弹种类齐全。 3、自卫的原则 中国发展数量有限的战略核武器,完全是为了自卫,遏制可能出现的核袭 击。从拥有核武器的那一天起,中国政府就向全世界庄严承诺:在任何时候、任何情况下绝 不首先使用核武器,不对无核国家和地区使用核武器。 13 三、军队建设的现代化 面对世界军事技术的挑战,中央军委提出,在新的历史条件 下,要把战争准备的基点放在打赢现代技术,尤其是高技术条件下的局部战争之上,走有中国 特色的精兵之路.根据这一要求,人民解放军加大对部队体制、编制进行调整和改革的力度, 坚持质量建军、科技强军,全面推进军队的革命化、现代化、正规化建设,使部队的军政素 质和作战能力明显提高。 实行军衔制,是人民军队正规化建设的一项重要内容。1955 年, 人民解放军开始实行军衔制,1965 年被取消。1988 年 7 月,全国人大常委会通过中央军委 提出的《中国人民解放军军官军衔条例》 。 1997 年,中国政府宣布在 80 年代裁减军队员 额 100 万的基础上,再裁减军队员额 50 万。 ☆第 15 课 新中国的外交(1949 年---上世纪 80 年代) 一、和平共处五项原则 1、新中国的外交方针(政策) :新中国成立后,为了打破美 国等西方国家对中国的封锁,维护世界和平,创造有利于国家经济建设的国际环境,中国政 府奉行独立自主的和平外交政策, 展开了积极的外交活动。 ⑴、 提出和平共处五项原则 ① 时间和目的:20 世纪 50 年代初,在发展同周边国家睦邻友好关系的过程中,中国政府提出 了和平共处五项原则,得到了印度、缅甸等国的积极响应。1953 年 12 月,中国和印度就两 国在中国西藏地方的关系问题在北京举行会谈。 首次提出处理中印关系的基础应该是和平共 处五项原则的主张。1954 年 6 月,周恩来访问印度和缅甸期间,同印、缅两国总理共同倡 导将和平共处五项原则作为处理国际关系的准则。 ②内容: 互相尊重领土主权、 互不侵犯、 互不干涉内政、平等互惠、和平共处。 ③作用:和平共处五项原则不仅是中国处理对外关 系的基本原则,也是国际社会公认的国际关系准则。 二、出席亚非万隆会议: ①时间: 1955 年 4 月,亚非一些国家在印度尼西亚的万隆召开会议,史称“万隆会议” 。中国国务院 总理周恩来率领中国代表团应邀出席了会议。会上周恩来提出亚非国家应“求同存异”的方 针,得到与会代表的普遍赞同,为会议的圆满成功奠定了基础。万隆会议是第一次没有西方 大国参加的国际性会议。 ②意义:这次会议增进了中国同亚非各国的理解与信任,扩大了 中国在国际上影响。 三、恢复在联合国的合法席位 ①时间:20 世纪 70 年代,随着中国 国际威望的提高,支持中国进入联合国的国家越来越多。1971 年 10 月,第 26 届联合国大 会通过决议, 恢复中华人民共和国在联合国的一切合法权利, 并立即把蒋介石集团的 “代表” 驱逐出联合国的一切机构。 ②意义:中华人民共和国在联合国合法席位的恢复,是中国外 交的巨大胜利,进一步提高了中国的国际地位。从此,中国外交史翻开了新的一页。 四、 中美建交 背景:20 世纪 70 年代初,随着国际形势的发展,美国政府开始调整对华政策, 积极谋求与中国改善关系。 中国政府审时度势, 从促进世界和平和维护国家安全利益的立场 出发,对美国调整对华政策做出了积极回应。 过程:①积极回应。②“乒乓外交” 。③官 员交往。④握手言和:1972 年尼克松访华,双方在上

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

海签署了《中美联合公报》 。 ⑤1979 年 1 月 1 日中美两国正式建立外交关系。⑥邓小平访美。⑦“八一七”公报。 第 16 课,走向新世纪的对外关系 一、加入亚太经合组织 加入亚太经合组织是中国积极参 与并推动区域合作的一项重要举措。亚太经合组织成立于 1989 年,是亚太地区重要的政府 间区域经济合作组织。1991 年中国正式加入亚太经合组织。 2001 年,在世界经济放缓、 美国遭受恐怖主义袭击的情况下,中国成功主办了亚太经合组织年会。尤其是当年 10 月在 上海召开亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议(即 APEC 会议) ,取得圆满成功。 二、上海合 作组织的成立 14 2001 年 6 月,中国、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦以及乌兹别克斯坦 六国元首在上海签署宣言,宣布成立“上海合作组织” 。 三、维护世界和地区和平 为了 维护和促进世界与地区和平,中国一如既往,继续奉行独立自主的和平外交政策,积极参与 联合国和其他国际事务,发展同世界各国的友好关系,反对霸权主义和强权政治,反对一切 形势的恐怖主义,积极推动建立公正合理的国际政治经济秩序,为维护世界和平,促进共同 繁荣做出了重要贡献,展示了一个负责任的大国形象。随着综合国力的增强,中国在国际上 的地位进一步提高。 第六单元 科学技术与教育文化 第 18 课 科学技术 一、 “两弹一星” 的成功研制 1、为了打破超级大国的核垄断和核讹诈,加强国防建设,1955 年,中央决定 发展中国的原子能事业,研制核武器。1964 年 10 月,我国第一颗原子弹爆炸成功。1967 年 6 月,中国第一颗氢弹爆炸成功。原子弹与氢弹先后成功爆炸,标志着我国跨入了世界核 先进国家的行列。 ☆2、是否拥有人造地球卫星是衡量一个国家空间技术水平高低的重要 标志。1965 年,我国正式开始研制人造卫星。1970 年,我国成功地发射了第一颗人造地球 卫星----“东方红一号” ,从此,我国跻身世界航天科技的大国之列。1975 年 11 月,中国成 功发射一颗返回式卫星, 标志着中国成为世界上继美国、 苏联之后第三个掌握卫星回收技术 的国家;1981 年我国又成功地用一枚运载火箭发射了三颗卫星,法国之后第四了掌握“一 箭多星”技术的国家。此外,我国还成功发射了“风云”系列气象卫星, “嫦娥一号”探月 工作, “神舟系列”载人飞船等。②1999 年,我国成功发射第一艘无人飞船“神舟一号” ; ③2003 年第一艘载人飞船“神舟五号”发射成功;④2005 年“神舟六号” 载人飞船发射成 功。 中国导弹之父——钱学森 邓稼先——两弹元勋 3、牛胰岛素的人工合成: 1958 年,中国开始进行人工合成胰岛素的研究。于 1965 年 9 月在世界上首次用人工的方法 合成牛胰岛素。 ① 早在原始社会,河姆渡人开始了水稻 的 种 植 4 、 杂 交 水 稻 的 培 育 与 推 广 : ② 宋 朝 引 进 占 城 稻 ③袁隆平培育出籼型杂交水稻 1973 年 10 月,我国水稻专家袁隆平成功培育出籼型杂交水 稻。与普通水稻相比,杂交水稻具有产量高、抗病害强,适应范围广等优点。袁隆平被誉为 “杂交水稻之父” 。杂交水稻在全国大面积推广,发挥了重要作用,取得了巨大的经济效益 和社会效益,为解决中国的温饱问题做出了卓越贡献。 5、 “863”计划的制定与实施 20 世纪 80 年代以来,世界高技术蓬勃发展,国际竞争日趋激烈。1986 年 3 月,王大珩、王淘 淦昌、杨嘉墀、陈芳允 4 位科学家联名上书党中央,提出跟踪世界水平,加快发展我国高科 技的建议,受到中央领导的高度重视。因建议与决策的时间都是在 1986 年 3 月,所以这项 计划又称“863”计划。 “863”计划的顺利实施,为中国高技术发展起到重要的推动作用, 缩短了与世界先进水平的差距, 对促进经济增长和社会进步、 增强综合国力产生了深远的理 想。 在“863”计划的推动下,我国在生物工程药物、通信设备、高性能计算机、中文信 息处理平台、人工晶体、光电子材料与器件等国际高技术竞争的热点领域,已开发出一批具 有自主知识产权的产品。 6、计算机网络技术的应用 1986 年,中国开始网络建设,1994 年正式与国际互联网接通。 计算机网络技术广泛应用于社会生活的各个方面, 以此为技术依

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

托的信息产业到 2000 年已成为中国第一大产业。 计算机网络不仅提供了丰富的信息资源, 成为继书籍报刊、广播、电视后的“第四媒体” 、而且还是一个服务系统,能够提供形式多 样的手段和工具为用户服务,深刻影响着社会发展与社会生活 15 第 19 课

教育事业的发展 1 、 义务教育的普及 ① 新中国成立后,人民政府根据“教育为生产建设服务,学校面向工农开门”的方针,基础 教育有了较大的发展。 1986 年 4 月,全国人大通过《中华人民共和国义务教育法》 ,把基础教育纳 入法制轨道, 开始依法实施九年制义务教育。 1983 年, 邓小平题词: 教育要面向现代化, 面向世界。 面向未来。 ② 到 2001 年底, 占全国人口 80% 的地区已基本实现九年义务教育。 实践证明, 全日制义务教

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

育的普及,不仅给中国基础教育带来了新的生机和活力,而且也为实施“科教兴国”战略奠 定了坚 实的基础。 2 、 高等教育迅速发展 20 世纪 50 年代初,经过院系调整,高等学校的数量、招生规模和毕业人数都有大幅度增加, 布局也更趋合理。从 1951 年开始,国家对高等学校院系进行调整,以培养专门人才为重点,发展专 门学校,整顿加强综合性大学。到 20 世纪 90 年代,新一轮院系调整开始,向“通才”教育回归。 3 、 “文化大革命”期间,高等教育事业遭到严重破坏。 4 、 1977 年秋,要邓小平亲自主持下, “文化大革命”中废弃的高考制度被重新恢复,中国的高 等教育走上了正轨。经过 20 年的不断改革和调整,我国已形成了适应国民经济和社会发需要、培养 层次分明、办学形式多样、学科门类齐全的高等教育体系。新时期,优先发展高等教育。 5 、进入 20 世纪年代后,为了适应社会主义市场经济的需要,高等教育体制也开始改革。改革 的目标是优化教育结构,全面提高教育质量;理顺政府、社会和高等学校之间的关系,建立 和完善 政府统筹规划和宏观管理,学校面向社会自主办学的新体制。通过改革,高等院校的办学自 主权进

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

一步扩大,高校的专业设置、教学内容、课程体系和人才培养模式更趋合理,初步实现了高 等教育 资源的优化配置,为实施“科教兴国”战略奠定了坚实的基础。 1995 年 5 月,中共中央、国务院提 出“科教兴国”战略,要求努力提高全民族的科技文化素质,把经济建设转移到依靠科技进 步和提 高劳动者素质的轨道上来 第 20 课 文化艺术和体育 一、文学艺术的繁荣: 1、在“百花开放,百家争鸣”方针的指导下,文化艺术工作者排除 “左”的思想干扰,创作 了一批反映时代风貌,深受人民群众欢迎的优秀作品,在激发人们美好的情感、树立崇高理想 和品德方面产生过重大影响。 2、大型音乐舞蹈史诗《东方红》 。电影《青春之歌》和《林则徐》轰动一时。昆曲《十五贯》 演出成功,彩色电影戏剧片《梁山泊与祝英台》也风靡大江南北。 3、 “文化大革命”期间,文化艺术备受摧残。 4、改革开放后,文化艺术迅速由复苏走向前所未有的繁荣。中国艺术节每四年一次。 二、 体育事业的突飞猛进 1、根据“发展体育运动,增强人民体质”的方针,群众体育运动广泛 开展。1995 年,政府正式推出“全民健身计划” ,确立“全民健身以全国人民为实施对象, 以青少年和儿童为重点”的战略目标。同年 8 月, 《中华人民共和国体育法》通过。 2、1973 年,中国恢复在亚运会联合会的合法席位;1979 年,中国重返奥委会。1956 年 6 月 7 日,陈镜开打破最轻量级挺举世界纪录[中国创造的第一个世界纪录]。1957 年 11 月 17 日, 郑凤荣打破女子跳高世界纪录, 被誉为 “宣告中国体育运动春天降临的一只燕子” 。 1959 年 4 月,容国团获得第 25 届世乒赛男子单打冠军。 3、1984 年,在美国洛杉矶举行的第 23 届夏季奥运会上,中国代表团射击运动员许海峰实 现了金牌“零的突破” 。尤其是在第 27 届夏季奥运会上,中国名列金牌榜第三位,实现历史 性突破,跻身世界竞技体育强国之林。2001 年 7 月,北京申奥成功,取得 2008 年夏季奥运 会主办权。16 第七单元 社会变迁与日常生活 1 、改革开放以来,适应社会主义市场经济发展的需要,劳动就业机制发生了深刻变革。 “统包 统配”劳动就业模式的打破,使劳动力资源得到合理流动和优化配置、也提高了劳动者自主 择业的 就业观念和就业素质。 2 、养老、医疗、失业保险以及最低生活保障等社会保障体系的创建,为维护社会稳定、完善 市

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

场经济体制发挥了重要作用。 第 21 课 劳动就业与社会保障 一、 劳 动就业制度的变化 经过全国人民半个多世纪的努力,随着社会经济的迅速发展,劳动就业取得了巨大的进步, 突 出地表现在:就业规模不断扩大,就业结构逐渐优化,适应社会主义市场经济的就业管理体 制正在 形成。 改革开放,特别是社会主义市场经济体制形成后,国家对劳动就业制度实行了深刻的改革, 从 “统包统配” ,通过各种形式的劳动就业和劳动合同制的逐步推行,最后过渡到完全由市场 调节。 “劳动者自主就业、市场调节就业、政府促进就业”成为新的劳动就业模式。国家颁布实施 《劳动 法》 ,由法律上保障了企业自主用工、个人自主择业的权利。 二、社会保障制度的建立与发展 社会保障制度是现代国家重要的社会经济制度之一, 与人民的生活息息相关。 中华人民共和 国 成立后,相继制定了关于养老保险、医疗保险和社会救济、社会福利、优抚安置等一系列政 策法规, 初步建立起适合国情的社会保障制度,对国民经济的发展和社会政治的稳定起到了重要作 用。 为什么要改革社会原有的社会保障制度? 由国家统包的社会保障制度,保障了人民的基本生活安全,促进了社会经济的发展。但它的 弊 端也显而易见:一、覆盖面狭窄,仅仅限于企事业单位职工;二、不具备社会保险性质;三、 往往 以政府命令的方式实施,拖欠、克扣现象时有发生,无法可依;四、享受者不直接承担医疗 养老等

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

保障费,自我保障意识到淡薄。 就业管理体制改革后,劳动力资源的优化配置提高了经济发展的效率,但在企事业“减员增 效” 过程中出现的下岗现象,以及城镇失业员基本生活、养老、医疗等方面缺乏保障的社会问题 也凸显 出来 . 加快社会保障制度改革 , 建立统一的、 覆全盖全社会的社会保障新体制成为完善市场经济体制、 促进社会经济稳定的当务之急。 从 20 世纪 90 年代起,国家加快了社会保险制度改革的步伐,根据多渠道筹集社会保障基金的 新机制,建立起了养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险和最低生活保障等制度,同时实行离退休 人员养 老金社会化发放和退休人员社会化管理,使相关人员的社会保障得到完全落实。 第 22 课 社会生活的变迁 一、 从 贫困到小康。改革开放后,经济迅速发展,人民生活跨跃了一大步,由脱离贫困、解决 温饱迈向小康。 二、文化生活丰富多彩 建国以来,随着国民经济的逐步发展,城乡居民在物质生活提高的同时,精神需求也在不断 增 长。特别是改革开放后,很多人意识到知识和信息的重要性,对文化教育的投入增多,文化 娱乐用 品及服务支出在消费结构中的比例大幅增长;人们开始更多地关注自己的身心健康,医疗、 养生、 保健受到重视,文化精神生活变得丰富多彩起来。

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's m as s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h t he grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the " learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go hand in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ni ng t heory a nd practi ce together in order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for

doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht pat terns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and



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